My name is John Giles, on the 20th of February 1947 I was called up to start my national service at the Howe Barracks in Canterbury. It was here I undertook six weeks square bashing and bulling. I was then thought to be officer material and I was posted on to Buller Barracks at Aldershot to be a potential OR1 or possible officer. The training and studies were hard, but I got through it. I was selected to report to Chester and be interviewed by a War Office Selection Board. I was much too young and my father was not a General. As you can guess I was not selected and I was passed onto the R.A.S.C at Aldershot and sent for further training at Blackdown Camp in Camberley.
At the time no one of authority seemed to know what to do with myself and a few others who had failed the officer selection. Eventually I was shipped out to Port Said Egypt on the SS Franconia and onto the RASC School at Gebel Maryam. Later with a detachment I was sent onto Kabrit. We were there to guard German Prisoner s that had been rounded up after absconding and living with the local good time girls. They were all later shipped off to European POW camps. The Camp at Kabrit I later found out became an S.A.S training camp. I was now a Sergeant and was posted to Salonika in Greece. I was on detachment to the Salonika interrogation Centre, as a Sergeant Chief Clerk. I was billeted in a lovely three storey house by the sea. The house had been owned by a Jewish family who had fled when the Germans invaded Greece. I have often wondered what happened to that family and always hoping they reached safety. As you are aware this was a good posting, the area is known as Thessaloniki now.
As my Two years national service was coming to an end, I was shipped home on the Eastern Prince This converted troop ship had sustained a lot of damage during the war, but was refitted back into service. The ship was later named the Empire Medway. I was like all national servicemen looking forward to demob and getting on with my life. It was quite strange after demob, all my social like friends had moved on. I felt very uneasy and it was difficult to settle down and eventually I resigned my job in a bank. This turned out to be the best thing I ever did. I met Shirley who became my wife and we had fifty beautiful years together, before she died three years ago. Losing her was a big loss as you will understand, but nothing can douse the memories of our life together. Mine and Shirley’s legacy lives on in our two great children and our four lovely grandchildren.
I am now 84 years of age and still in good health, I don’t believe in wasting what time I have left, because as you know life goes on.
Good luck and best wishes to you all
S/19136378 John Giles
On the 26th June 2013 was the 71st anniversary of the first National Serviceman to be called up in 1939. His name was Rupert Alexander and he was conscripted into the Middlesex Regiment with his army number being10000001. Rupert was the first of the many young men who served their country with distinction. The sad part of it all, thousands of these conscripted young men, lost their lives in the service of their country.
At the outbreak of war, on 3rd September 1939, the Government brought in the National Service Act. This act imposed an order to conscript of men 18 to 41 years old. Obviously some men could be rejected for medical reasons also men who were engaged in vital industrial work were put on reserved occupation. Some young men were directed to work down the coal mines these were called Bevin Boys. Conscientious objectors had to justify their action to a tribunal, who had the power to allocate the applicants to one of three categories: unconditional exemption; exemption conditional upon performing specified civilian work like farming and forestry service some conscientious objectors were put in Non-Combatant Corps or in some other non-combatant unit such as the Royal Army Medical Corps. Where I lived conscientious objectors manned the smoke screens along a beach road. One has to remember families lost fathers and sons during the war. Consequently at that time people had no respect for the objectors and they were always called Conchies. Eventually by early 1940 all British subjects between 18 to 51 years old, as well as all females 20 to 30 years old resident in Britain, were liable to be called up. Only a few categories were exempted: Those days the British people were genuinely in it together
Men under 20 years old were initially not liable to be sent overseas, but this exemption was lifted by 1942. Men called up before they were 51 years old, but reached their 51st birthday during their service were liable to serve until the end of the war. People who had retired, resigned or had been dismissed from the forces before the war were liable to be called back into service if they had not reached 51 years of age. Britain did not completely demobilise after the war ended in1945. The conscription continued after the war because the men who had served in the forces during the war were given release dates determined by length of service Obviously military strength had to be kept and National Service was continued. National Service continued as a peacetime conscription was formulated by the National Service Act 1948. From 1st January 1949, healthy males 17 to 21 years old were expected to serve in the Armed Forces and this continued until 1960 when the last National Servicemen were conscripted (called up).
I personally was called up in February 1960, twenty one years after Rupert Alexander. History will recall Great Britain was rich with young men who were rallied to the call when their country was in need both at home and abroad. Alongside the regular services they served in many conflicts around the world. The National Servicemen did not get full recognition or credit by successive governments, for the part they played in the service of their country, all those years ago.
In 1952, an uprising against colonial rule in Kenya started and it lasted for eight years. Kenya at the time was planned to be an independent country and no doubt this uprising hastened Kenya’s independence. The Kikuyu tribal people had many grievances and were the main rebel opposition they went under the name of Mau Mau. During this uprising over 1,800 African civilians were killed, 200 British police and army soldiers were also killed. The number of Mau Mau during those eight years was put at 20,000. Although the revolt was directed against British colonial forces and the white settler community, much of the violence took place between rebel and loyalist Africans.
The uprising, which involved mainly Kikuyu people, who were the largest ethnic group in the colony, began to take shape when more radical Kikuyu militants were invited in to the nationalist KAU (Kenya African Union). Called Muhimu, these activists replaced a more moderate, constitutional agenda with a militant one. The Muhimu began widespread Kikuyu oathing, often through intimidation and threats. Traditional oathing ceremonies were believed to bind people to the cause, with the consequence of death resulting if one broke these oaths. The British responded with de-oathing ceremonies. Additionally, the Muhimu attacked loyalists and white settlers.
The war against the Mau Mau officially began in October 1952 when an emergency was declared and British troops were sent to Kenya. The British response to the uprising entailed massive round-ups of suspected Mau Mau and supporters, with large numbers of convicted rebels hanged and up to 150,000 Kikuyu held in detention camps. Large numbers of the Mau Mau rebels based themselves in the forests areas of Mount Kenya and Aberdares. There were also rebel militants in all the major cities of Kenya such as Nairobi and Mombasa.
One story that tells the full horror of this war is the Lari massacre of March 1953. Lari was an area populated by Kikuyu who had refused to take the Mau Mau oath and so were then regarded as traitors. The Mau Mau descended upon this peaceful community with vengeance. Many were slashed to death, some were burned alive in their huts; many were maimed for life. Pregnant women were disemboweled, children were murdered. The massacre claimed 120 lives. The bitter memories of the event still divide the Lari area at this present day. It is one of many reasons why post-independence Kenya refused to recognise Mau Mau claims on ancestral lands and banned it as an organisation. This Massacre at Lari was a turning point in the uprising, where many Kikuyu were forced to choose sides in this resistance struggle.
Sadly the most famous victims of the Mau Mau were the white settler Ruck family; they lived in the Rift Valley just north of Nairobi. In January 1953, Mau Mau fighters stormed their remote farm house, and hacked to death Roger and Esmee Ruck and their six-year-old son, Michael. The images of bloodied teddy bears and broken toy trains were strewn across Michael’s bedroom floor. All this inflamed British opinion, but the murder of a white settler family was actually very rare during the uprising: The Mau Mau preferred to kill Africans and indeed they did.
The Mau Mau had a big problem when the British Army were called in and by 1957 through their expertise and endeavor broke and beat the Mau Mau terrorist forest armies. In 1960 the emergency was declared over. Over the next few years following the rebellion the British Government introduced and implemented reforms. In the year 1963 Kenya received its independence from Great Britain. The first president of Kenya was Jomo Kenyatta
Now fifty three years later the British Government has announced that Kenyans abused by British colonial forces during the Mau Mau uprising of the 1950s will receive compensation totaling £20 million and furthermore regrets any injustices. What a load of wets this government is becoming. Obviously people suffer during uprisings and no doubt innocent people get caught up in the turmoil, but it is always the British who are made the villains. The British army sorted the problem out and brought about peace to Kenya which in turn made it a strong country as it is today. One has to remember, the British Army are well trained and they don’t mess about with people who commit atrocities. None of the Mau Mau leaders have been prosecuted for the horrific torture and murders it inflicted on their own fellow Kenyans, but nobody looks at that.
I nearly missed this out what I have wrote about the Mau Mau troubles . The President of the U.S.A. Barak Obama’s grandad Onyanga was arrested and interned for two years during the uprising in Kenya. Although it was never stated if he was a member of the Mau Mau, but nevertheless he was interned. It is puzzling that this compensation is being paid out during Baraka Obama’s Presidency.
If the British Government wants to start giving out compensation, it should be to the thousands of National Servicemen who were part of the British armed forces that quelled these uprisings and in turn brought about independence and peace to so many countries throughout the world.
I missed this out when I wrote about the Mau Mau . The President of the U.S.A. Barak Obama’s grandad Onyanga was arrested and interned for two years during the uprising in Kenya. Although it was never stated if he was a member of the Mau Mau, but nevertheless he was interned. It is puzzling that this compensation is being paid out during Baraka Obama’s Presidency.
I have now added this to thepost about the Mau Mau
December 7th 1941 a date the late and great American President Roosevelt said “A day that will live in infamy.” This was day the Japanese not only attacked the American fleet at Pearl Harbour, but started to attack British governed possessions in the Far East, particular Hong Kong and Malaysia. The Japanese troops from their military bases in Thailand invaded other nations in Southeast Asia and then proceeded overland across the Thai–Malayan border to attack Malaya. The Japanese began bombing strategic areas of Singapore, The air raids were consistent on Singapore from 29 December onwards, although The British anti-aircraft fire kept most of the Japanese bombers from totally devastating the island as long as ammunition was available.
Hope came to the Far East when the Battleship HMS Prince of Wales and the Battle-cruiser HMS Repulse and four Destroyers arrived at Malaya it was hoped they would be a strong deterrent to the Japanese forces. Unfortunately both Ships were attacked and sunk by Japanese aircraft on the 10th December while on the way to prevent the invasion of Malaya. This news came as a great shock not only for the British forces in Malaya but to everyone at home in Great Britain as well. The Japanese had invaded Malaya on December 8th 1941; they landed at the mouth of the Kelantan River, subsequently capturing Khota Bharu and its airfield. Nobody thought it possible particularly the British High command that an army could get through dense jungle and hills to capture Malaya and reach Singapore. All the big wigs thought the only invasion would be seaborne. The Japanese with light tanks and infantry, some using bikes, conquered Malaya within seven weeks
On January31st1942, after the last British Troops had been withdrawn to the Island of Singapore the Johore Causeway that connected Singapore with the mainland was breached. The battle for Singapore intensified with air raid attacks constant. The general attack began on 4th February when the naval base was raided and set on fire our big guns had been positioned for an attack coming from the sea not from the land. The British Forces and Allies were commanded by General Arthur Ernest Percival. No doubt he was a brave man during The First world War because he had been awarded a DSO and MC. History says he was the wrong man in the wrong place to be in charge of the defence of Singapore. One can only draw one’s own conclusion. I have not gone into the ins and outs too many writers have already written on this subject in great detail. That is why you the reader must draw your own conclusion.
The Japanese continued to make fresh landings; the Johore Causeway was soon fixed so that tanks were beginning to cross. After fierce fighting the reservoirs were lost to the enemy then the naval base. To the utter dismay to British troops on the ground General Percival surrendered unconditionally with 75,000 men to Lt General Yamashita. Singapore the jewel in the British Crown was lost one week after the initial Japanese attack on the Island.
The fall of Singapore was another low point for the British people during the early days of the war. All those captured troops both British, and Australian were sent to Prisoner of war camps and suffered horrendous brutality. There were 50,000 British Troops in Japanese captivity 12,433 died as POWs .The Australians had 21000 in captivity of which 8031 died as POWs.
These were not old men they were young fit men who were broken bodily and mentally by the sheer cruelty of the Japanese military.
The men who survived the POW camps in the Far East suffered many health problems for the rest of their lives. Many died very young. It is very sad indeed for all of those unfortunate men. Their wives, girlfriends and parents must have had a hard time bringing some joy back to their lives, because those who did survive needed help that only loved ones can bring.
.My personal belief is, if General Percival could have for seen what would happen to the men under his command when he surrendered at Singapore and they went into Japanese captivity. I am sure he would have fought to the end. If he had, history would show him in a different light.
Both we the British and Americans were caught napping in 1941 and we paid a bigger price than anyone else for our negativity, because it was also the beginning of the end of our Empire.
I have wrote many times about the brave men and women of the British services, but I have missed out the wives and mothers of service men and women, who were at home trying to make ends meet in the very difficult times of World War 2. Every mother had a big part to play in bringing about the eventual victory. These magnificent British women with ration books in hand stood in endless queues to buy food for the families. They cooked the meals, looked after the children. No doubt they went short themselves, because of the many shortages of just about everything. Many women had their sons, daughters and husbands serving in the forces and many had their loved ones killed in action in the many theatres of war. Families at home were killed in the bombing of many British Towns and Cities. The grief was shared with the rest of the residents of their streets throughout the country. Whatever happened and in many cases it was sad, they could not dwell on it, because life had to carry on for the sake of the family.
The British women are a strong breed and it was proved in those dark days of World War Two. Neighbours were closely knit your problem was their problem no family had it easy. Clothes were handed down to others in the family as they got older.
During those dark years and before, child mortality was quite common. Just to use this as an example, my parents lost their first child Freda who would have been my older sister if she had lived; Freda was only 2 months of age when she died. My parents did not talk about it, but my father told me when I was a young man. He said it felt as if the the earth had opened up and swallowed him. Our family, were not on their own, because some of my school friends’ parents had similar experiences. During the war years these brave women had other children and brought them up as happy and best they could in the very trying circumstances.
One must remember the illness’s that families endured did not have the medicines etc. to combat them that we enjoy in this present day. I personally think the school children in this present age should be taught about what happened in Great Britain during the war years. Let them understand what their Great Grand Parents went through in order to give them a better life. I could write about this for evermore. Sadly I know and believe they had a very rough time and it should not be forgotten. The trouble was they still had a tough time in the post war ration book years. There was no magic wand, even with their husbands and sons back from the war they just had to grin and bear it and to their credit they just did that. The British Government should have minted a medal for those brave women, who were on the home front and valiantly put the Great in Great Britain.
In 1949 I attended the Walney Island secondary school. The houses of the school were split into three, the Seraph, Thorough and the house my sister, brother and I were in, Truant. These were three submarines that were launched at Barrow-in-Furness Shipbuilding yard at the start of World War Two. All pupils and teachers of the school were very proud to be associated with these submarines and their brave crews.
Seraph was one of the third batch of S-class submarines, built by Vickers-Armstrong at Barrow-in-Furness. Launched on 25 October 1941 and commissioned on 27 June 1942. I have to mention too build these Submarines in such a short time indeed speaks so highly of the Barrow-in-Furness workforce. The Seraph sailed on many dangerous patrols, but is most remembered for Operation Mincemeat. This operation was carried out to fool the Germans that there would be an invasion of Greece and Sardinia not Sicily. The Seraph set sail in April 1943 carrying the corpse of a dressed up Royal Marine officer packed in a sealed canister of dry ice, attached to the wrist of the corpse, was a briefcase containing fake documents to fool the Germans. In the early hours of 30 April Seraph surfaced off the coast of Spain, near the port of Huelva. The Skipper Lt Jewell and his officers removed the corpse from the canister and launched the body and briefcase into the sea. Lt Jewell then radioed back to headquarters the signal “MINCEMEAT completed.” The body was picked up by the Spanish, who decided it was a courier killed in an aircraft accident. The false documents were passed to the Germans and led them to divert forces from the defence of Sicily and the rest is history. The Seraph remained in active service throughout the war. In 1955 she was fitted with armour plating and used as a torpedo target boat. She was attached to a squadron commanded by none other than her first skipper, now Captain Jewell. She remained in commission until 25 October 1962, 21 years to the day after her launching and was scrapped.
The Submarine HMS Thorough was in the third group of the of T Class submarines being built by Vickers-Armstrong at Barrow-in-Furness. She was built and launched on 30 October 1943, commissioned for service on the 1st March 1944. The Thorough served in the Far East for much of her wartime career, where she sank twenty seven Japanese sailing vessels, seven coasters, a small Japanese vessel, a Japanese barge, a small Japanese gunboat, a Japanese trawler, and the Malaysian sailing vessel Palange. In August 1945, along with HMS Taciturn attacked Japanese shipping and shore targets off North Bali. The Thorough sank a Japanese coaster and a sailing vessel with gunfire. The Thorough survived the war and continued in service with the Navy, until finally being scrapped at Dunston on Tyne on 29 June 1962.
The Submarine HMS Truant was a T-class Submarine of the Royal Navy She was laid down by Vickers-Armstrong at Barrow-in-Furness, launched on the 5 May 1939 and Commissioned on October 1st 1939. The Truant had a very active service in many theatres of the war, in home waters, the Mediterranean and Pacific Far East. The Truant’s first victory was when she torpedoed the German light cruiser Karlsuhe off Norway. The ship was so disabled that a German motor torpedo boat had to sink it. Later after many operations the Truant was sent to the Mediterranean theatre of war in the mid 1940’s. During the assignment in the Mediterranean, Truant went on to sink a number of enemy ships, including the Italian merchants Providenza, Sebastiano Bianchi and the Multedo. Also two oil tankers were sunk by the Truant’s torpedoes, the Bonzo and Meteor. The Truant was not finished there; she also sunk the Italian auxiliary submarine chaser Vanna and the Italian Cargo ship Bengasi. That was some record for such a gallant submarine as the Truant.
After her gallant service in the Mediterranean the Truant was sent on operations in the Far East in late 1942, to disrupt and sink Japanese shipping. She torpedoed and sunk the Japanese Merchant cargo ships Yae Maru and Sunshei Maru. Also with torpedoes, the Truant sent to the bottom the Japanese Army cargo ship Tamon Maru. With many more exploits the Truant survived the war and was sold for scrap. During December 1946 whilst en- route to the ship breakers, true to her name the Truant broke loose her cables and was wrecked.
Walney Modern Secondary School has now been demolished. As you the reader will certainly understand, all ex-pupils who were members of the houses Seraph, Thorough and Truant were very proud pupils indeed. I know because I was one of those proud pupils.
Hello everybody I thought this might interest you about an incident that happened during the Indian mutiny
Early in the spring of 1857 there was discontent among many of the Indian troops that were in the Bengal army. The ring leaders of these troops believed the time had come to drive the British out of India and to set up their own leadership. Rumours spread rapidly amongst the troops exciting them to mutiny. One of the main stories being circulated to upset the troops was that the cartridges issued out to them, had been greased with pig and cows fat. The pig, being an unclean animal to both Hindus and Muslims and the cow being sacred to the Hindus. For the reader when a rifle was loaded in the years of 1857. The rifleman had to bite the end of the cartridge before putting it in the breech. This is why the rumour was circulated. The first mutinous action started at Meerut on the 10th May 1857. The Indian troops murdered their officers and many Europeans they could find, including women and children. Gathering in momentum and numbers the mutineers marched on the undefended Delhi and murdered the whole of the European population in absolute cruelty. Hearing the news from Meerut, the troops in the Bengal army also rose up and murdered their officers and all the European men, women and children they could find from the Punjab down to Calcutta. This can only be termed as complete mayhem and was spreading fast. The garrisons at Cawnpore and Lucknow were now heavily under siege.
At Cawnpore, the officer in command was Sir Hugh Wheeler who had 240 officers, soldiers and civilians many who had sought safety at Cawnpore along with 870 women and children. At the time they hoped they would be free from danger, because of the British friendship with the local Prince Nana Sahib. How wrong they were Nan Sahib joined the rebel forces and combining with his army of men it totalled 12000. During the course of the battle, the small British force repulsed everything the Mutineers could throw at them. After 21 days of fighting Nana Sahib offered free passage to the defenders if they would surrender. Sir Hugh Wheeler knew it was futile to carry on and the terms were accepted. The Nana and his Hindu followers taking the Hindu oath and the Muslims swearing on the Koran, that the conditions be observed. As soon as the Defenders of Cawnpore embarked on the boats down the Ganges. The mutineers opened up with terrific barrage of musket fire and cannon from the river bank. All the boats were sunk and all the men barring four, who escaped to tell the tale, were shot. The women and children, some with bad injuries were taken prisoner and marched back into Cawnpore.
On hearing the dreadful news a British force of 1400 men under General Havelock fought their way up from Allahabad defeating all opposition, including Nana Sahib’s force. The relieving force retook Cawnpore and rejoiced that the women and children would be free. When they entered the town they were too late. Everything was quiet, with scattered dresses and shoes were all around. The British troops knew something terrible had happened and it didn’t take long before their suspicions were realised. The great well near to the house where the women and children were imprisoned was choked to the brim with bodies, all had been massacred. The very tough soldiers, who had fought their way up, enduring heat and exhaustion to reach Cawnpore, broke down and cried at the terrible sight before their eyes.
There were many more battles before the final defeat of the mutineers at Lucknow in 1858, which brought the rebellion to an end. India at the time was run by the East Indian Company; this was now transferred from them, to the British Crown and India became a British Dominion.
In 1876 Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India. Seventy one years later, India and Pakistan became Independent of Great Britain in August 1947.
No doubt you the reader will understand that they were turbulent years in the history of India. The seeds for independence for the Hindu and Muslim religion were sown over those turbulent years. During the war against the Japanese both Hindu and Muslims bravely fought side by side with the British forces in Burma, to eventual victory. At this present time both India and Pakistan are strong Independent nations. For the future of both cultures, let’s hope they can live together in peace
Kingsman Dave Shaw 23 years of age of the 1st Battalion the Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment was laid to rest on Tuesday 6th February 2013 at Barrow Cemetery with full military honours.
Kingsman Dave Shaw the eldest son of David and Jenny Shaw, from a very early age wanted to join the army. A Barrow-in-Furness born lad, he attended local schools and joined the local army cadets. He later joined the Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment and successfully completing his infantry training served a tour of duty in Afghanistan. On Kingsman Dave Shaw’s second tour of duty while on a patrol near Lashkar Gah in Helmand province, he was shot by insurgents. He was rushed to Camp Bastion where surgeons worked hard on him before transferring him to the Queen Elizabeth’s Hospital in Birmingham, but sadly surrounded by his parents and family Kingsman Dave Shaw passed away. Lieutenant Colonel Wood the commanding officer of the Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment spoke very highly of him and turning to Kingsman Shaw’s family said “I hope the memory of a true warrior, a lion of England, a friend and marra, who died doing something he believed in and that he was so good at may offer you some comfort.”
I personally did not know Kingsman Dave Shaw, but I feel the sadness of the passing of this very brave Barrow lad along with his family, friends and fellow servicemen. On behalf of you the reader I wish all our men and women serving in Afghanistan a safe return home.
The present conflict in Afghanistan is one of the many conflicts that have plagued Afghanistan for hundreds of years. Here is just one of them.
During the early part of Queen Victoria’s reign in 1883 trouble arose on the borders of India. The British army had entered Afghanistan to restore an Afghan prince to his throne from which he had been driven by a rival. The British Army achieved this task after some heavy fighting especially at the town of Ghuznee, which the Afghans thought it to be impregnable. It was taken after a few hours of fighting. The British soon put down all the resistance. A strong British force remained at Kabul for the protection of the prince.
Towards the end of 1841 a great misfortune happened to this British force. On the 22nd November the inhabitants of Kabul rose up in rebellion and were joined by tribesmen from all parts of the country. All supplies etc. were cut off and the position became very serious. General Elphinstone getting on in years was in command and he was not up to the situation and responsibilities. He decided to leave Afghanistan with his army of 4500 men and some 12000 camp followers. The movement began on the 6th January 1842. As one can imagine the weather was extremely cold with snow very deep on the ground and ravines through which the force had to travel. Not only to contend with the weather. The area was swarming with the enemy and was being attacked from all sides. Numbed with cold the passage blocked by fallen horses and overturned carts, the British soldiers fought to the last man. Of the 17000 who set out from Kabul only one man a Dr. Brydon made it back to Jelalabad in safety. All the rest barring about 100 men and women, who had been taken prisoner, had died by the sword or the cold weather. Quite unbelievable but true.
Sir Robert Sale was in command of a brigade in the area between Kabul and Jelalabad when the news reached him of the massacre. It wasn’t long before his force was attacked but they fought their way down to Jelalabad. Although he was far away from support the prospect was gloomy. The walls of the town were in ruins, but defend it they did. After a few months they took the action to the enemy and attacked them whenever they approached and taking in their cattle. As the siege came into its fifth month the garrison boldly marched out attacking the besieging army in their camp completely routed them and capturing all their cannons. Shortly afterwards, General Pollock with a relieving army, fought his way up the Khyber Pass and reached Jelalabad.
With absolute confidence the united forces marched onto Kabul annihilating any opposition who ventured against them. On reaching Kabul, the great bazaar was burnt as a punishment to the town for the part the inhabitants taken in the massacre. The British force then marched back to India.
Britain is only a small nation, but in this small nation we breed men of steel. Not only just then also in this present day